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As this man reaches for the sun, so he grasps the ability to reason from first principles

To Reason from First Principles, You First Need to Understand

Every year, at the same time, the same thing happened, and the company I worked for responded to it in the same way. It was a crisis, a moment of panic as work threatened to overwhelm the business, damaging client relations along with it.

No-one could see the repeating pattern and after five years – and five new department managers, my manager decided he wasn’t going to be number six. He – we – looked at the historical data, and realised the same thing happened every year.

A fixer: a firefighter would step in and manage the crisis. She was great at putting temporary systems in place to deal with the chaos, which had everyone running around like headless chickens.

The irony – the firefighter didn’t know what the cause of the problem was.

She couldn’t explain it. No one could. Everyone could explain the effects, but no-one could explain why. Earlier managers had gone to great lengths to manage the effects, but none had dealt with the why.

We didn’t want to manage the effects, we wanted to understand the problem – and so, we started asking why.


First Principles - the building blocks of life

Why we reason from first principles

Clever people reason from first principles. Reasoning from first principles is a process of critical thinking. It is a way of understanding how the world works, from any level we want. What’s more, it offers a way to solve problems and to find alternative solutions when we become stuck.

It is a means of considered thinking broken into two parts.

  • Understanding the fundamental truths which sit at the heart of a problem or question.
  • Use this understanding to find an alternative solution.

Finding a solution when you’re faced with a problem requires a new way of doing the same thing. This is how people like Elon Musk solve problems. Having grasped the fundamental principles of flying in space, or working with batteries, Elon can reason from these points to reinvent what’s gone before.

Understanding why launching rockets cost so much, enabled Elon and Space X to create reusable rockets – thus dramatically reducing flight costs.

We all want to be clever – hell – we all think we’re clever.

Seizing on the language of first principles is easy.

But here is the thing, when you try and find examples of people who successfully use first principles thinking, it’s hard. Yes, we know about Elon of course. A Google search reveals a lengthy list of articles, of which, I’m sure this will become one.

But where else are there examples?

I found several involving Nick Kokonas, the CEO of Tock, and the co-owner of Alinea, Next, The Aviary and others including:

  • Tuesday is not Saturday.
  • Food costs money
  • How to self-publish your book

I’m going to reference the first two below, but this link to Nick’s article explains the book deal he crafted for himself.


Tuesday is not Saturday.

When Grant Achatz, Nick’s partner and head chef fell ill with Cancer, it led to Nick becoming more involved in operations at the restaurant. Observant as he was, he quickly noticed empty tables on a Tuesday evening, but overbooking on a Saturday night. [1]

“Why?” he asked.

As he searched for answers, so began to learn what was happening. Demand for tables on a Friday and Saturday was massive, with tables booked ahead for weeks. But some wouldn’t turn up, leaving empty tables and lost revenue. Customers made a verbal reservation, meaning if something came up, it was easy not to go.

The customer stood to lose nothing.

Some would turn up having booked a table for six when they wanted a table for two – and only two would attend – losing the restaurant more revenue. To factor against this and the no shows, the restaurant would overbook, allowing customers to wait as they juggle tables on busy nights.

It was a poor experience for the customer – and the restaurant.

The beginning of Tock

Nick now understood the fundamental truths of selling seats in a restaurant. He understood the first principles and could now reason from them. He could see this was a supply and demand problem.

Reasoning from first principles enabled Nick to mimic other supply and demand businesses. Nick could see his restaurant was no different from a theatre selling tickets. In a theatre, the better the view, the more the seats cost. Applying the same logic in a restaurant, the busier the night, the more a table should cost. Conversely, the less demand, the cheaper the table could be.

The other issue Nick could see was prepayment. When you go to the theatre, you pay upfront for your seat, not after, or not even at all if you don’t show up.

So, Nick opted to build an online booking system which would enable customers to book online – and pay a deposit – to secure their table. Tuesdays were cheaper than Saturday’s, and so on. It became a system of dynamic pricing for restaurant reservations.

The skin in the game – the payment to secure the booking – changed everything. Empty tables became a thing of the past. As quickly as they released new dates for reservations, they would sell out, the demand beyond expectation.

It not only led Nick to increase seating occupancy at The Aviary, but it also turned the cashflow model on its head. Oh, and it also led Nick to create Tock, a software system he could licence to other restaurants to use. [2]

Food costs money

As previously noted, taking payments upfront from customers changed the cash flow model for the restaurant. Instead, of collecting payment at the end of the meal, The Aviary had a huge chunk of it paid in advance.

Nick began thinking about how they could use this to their advantage. Typically, like most restaurants, suppliers got their money several months after they had supplied their products. Credit terms were sometimes as high as 120 days – 4 months after supply. [3]

With the cash in the bank, Nick contacted a meat supplier and asked him a question.

“What the price be if paid you in advance for the next four months meat orders?”

“I’ll get back to you.” came the reply. The reply blew Nick away. The price was now $18 a kilo, down from $34 kilo, which was nearly half.

 “I’ll pay you $20, if you tell me why”, Nick wanted to know.

The answer lied in the hidden cost of selling meat. Once beef went past a certain age, price reductions occurred to help sell it or dispose of it. With the security of the payment and the amount the supplier needed to deliver, disposal costs were irrelevant.

Of course, Nick was quick to try this with other suppliers, and the restaurant’s food costs tumbled, increasing margins significantly.

Nick’s method is the same as Elon’s. First, they understand.


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First, you need to understand.

We think we understand things, but we don’t – not like Nick and Elon.

More importantly, we don’t take the right steps to understand. We miss opportunities to learn; we don’t ask questions like a child.

Assumptions dress up our knowledge, fooling ourselves and others we understand. When I think of the way Elon looks to learn, I can see how we fool ourselves. Elon takes a subject, and like a tree, he is only interested in the trunk and main branches. These reveal the fundamental truths, which he focuses on, as these are the first principles. The detail, the assumptions – all lie within the smaller branches and leaves.

A child needs to learn.

Children’s reasoning from first principles – understanding.

As any parent will know, when a child reaches the age of 3-4, they suddenly become inquisitive of the world around them. They seek understanding – not knowledge –they want the tree trunk.

The word ‘why’ is a word parents begin to fear from their pre-school children. The reason is simple. Children want the trunk; they want to understand, and they can’t accept assumptions – they must understand. And so, they ask why.

In my piece, First Principles Thinking: Why We Need to Ask Questions Like a Child, I explain how children ask questions not to learn, but to understand.

My nephew is five. Like every five-year-old, he questions everything. “Why is it bedtime?” “Because it’s dark and time for you to get some sleep.” Replies dad. “Why does it get dark?” and often this is swiftly followed by “Why do I need to sleep?” My brother-in-law tolerates the questioning to a point, but as with most parents’ his patience soon disappears. 

Like every five-year-old, my nephews’ brain is like a sponge, and he wants to fill it. But, even at such an early age, his mind wants to utterly understand what is in front of him. If the first answer he gets doesn’t make sense to him, he keeps asking why until the explanation is something he understands.

First-principles thinking is the way children learn until they reach school age, at which point memorization becomes the dominate way they learn.

Young children have an innate urge to want to understand. It drives their questioning and their thinking beyond just knowing something. They want to fully understand what they see and hear.

Richard Feynman said it best when he said, “If you can’t explain it to a six-year-old, you don’t understand it yourself.” The simple reason being a child will keep questioning. It is the first principles thinking in action.

First Principles thinking: why we need to ask questions like a child

Understanding is the quest for young children with hollow brains. They aren’t interested in the second part I highlighted earlier. All they need is to develop an understanding of the world around them.

Nick Kokonas is no different. He always asks why – he is looking for the same tree trunk of knowledge so he can understand.

Of course, this takes effort. Which is why as adults we don’t ask questions. Instead, we accept assumptions, we accept the insights from the leaves and small branches of knowledge, rather than look for the fundamental truths of something.


Reasoning from first principles

As my boss and I began to ask why, so the trunk of the knowledge tree in this situation revealed itself. One fundamental truth was the algorithm the company used to distribute work – and unsurprisingly – no-one understood it.

As we unpacked this pathway, so the historical data made sense. Surges in work, combined with a limited ability created bottlenecks the software couldn’t process. The effects were clear and highly visible to clients and customers.

The first principles of this business were now within our hands – and now – we could reason from them to overcome the problem. We understood. The trunk from the tree of knowledge was where we focused, and thus, we developed the understanding so we could reason from first principles.

We were able to make tweaks to the algorithm, but also increase our ability to handle surges in work. The crisis became a thing of the past, meaning no more firefighting.

Maybe the earlier managers weren’t aware of first principles. The firefighter wasn’t. But whether they were or weren’t, without understanding the fundamental truths of the problem, they had no hope of fixing it.


Concluding Thoughts

It sounds utterly simple, doesn’t it? To reason from first principles, you first need to understand. But understand what exactly?

The answer: The fundamental truths of what you’re trying to reason from.

We all marvel at first principles thinking. We lap up the wisdom which flows from Elon Musk and his use of this powerful way of thinking.

But then, we ignore the hard part.

We assume we understand. We don’t question our assumptions or what others are telling us. Instead, we try and solve problems without understanding the underlying principles of what stands before us.

To reason from first principles, you first must understand what those first principles are. This means – as Elon puts it – boiling things down to their fundamental truths.

The challenge we all face is we think we know those truths already. So, when we reason from them, we’re reasoning by analogy, not first principles. We end up with saying like “We’ve always done it this way.”

We accept what’s gone before as fact.

And that’s the crux of this. If you want to reason from first principles, first, you must understand.


Sources

[1] Tim Ferriss Podcast with Nick Kokonas – 18th October 2018 – Nick Kokonas — How to Apply World-Class Creativity to Business, Art, and Life (#341) – The Blog of Author Tim Ferriss

[2] Medium – Nick Kokonas – https://medium.com/tock/tocks-bridge-to-the-future-tock-20-2f510b0d1938

[3] Nick Kokonas – Know What You Are Selling – Podcast with Patrick O’Shaughnessy Know What You Are Selling – Colossus (joincolossus.com)


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A man contemplating problem solving and decision making as looks forward.

Problem Solving and Decision Making – Two Essential Skills of a Good Leader

Problem solving and decision making are two fascinating skillsets. We call them out as two separate skills – and they are – but they also make use of the same core attributes.

They feed on a need to communicate well, both through questioning and listening, and be patient and not rushing both processes through. Thus, the greatest challenge any leader faces when it comes to solving problems and decision making is when the pressure of time comes into play. But as Robert Schuller highlights in his quote, allowing problem-solving to become the decision means you’ll never break free from the problem.

“Never bring the problem-solving stage into the decision-making stage. Otherwise, you surrender yourself to the problem rather than the solution.”

Robert H. Schuller

So how does a leader avoid this trap? How do they ensure the problem solving doesn’t become the be-all and end-all?


The 7 steps of Effective Problem Solving and Decision Making

A vital hurdle every leader must overcome is to avoid the impulsive urge to make quick decisions. Often when confronted with a problem, leaders or managers fall back in past behaviours. Urgency creates pressure to act quickly as a result, the problem still exists, just side-lined until it rears its ugly head again.

Good problem solving opens opportunity. A notable example of this is the first principles thinking executed by the likes of Elon Musk and others. Understanding the fundamentals blocks of a process and the problem it’s creating can lead to not just the problem but accelerate beyond it.

So, to avoid the trap, and use problem solving and decision making effectively, you should embody yourself with the following seven steps.

1.      What is the problem?

Often, especially in time-critical situations, people don’t define the problem. Some label themselves as fire-fighters, just content with dowsing out the flames. It is a reactionary behaviour and one commonplace with under-trained leaders. As great as some fire-fighters are, they can only put out so many fires at one time, often becoming a little industry.

The better approach is to define the problem, and this means asking the following questions:

  1. What is happening? (What makes you think there is a problem?)
  2. Where is it taking place?
  3. How is it happening?
  4. When is it happening?
  5. Why is it happening?
  6. With whom is it happening? (This isn’t a blame game…all you want to do is isolate the problem to a granular level.)
  7. Define what you understand to be the problem in writing by using as few sentences as possible. (Look at the answers to your what, where, why, when, and how questions.)

2.      What are the potential causes?

Having defined the problem it is now time to find out what might be causing the problem. Your leadership skills: your communication skills need to be strong, as you look to gather input from your team and those involved in the problem.

Key points:

  • Talk to those involved individually. Groupthink is a common cause of blindness to the problem, especially if there is blame culture within the business.
  • Document what you’ve heard and what you think is the root cause is.
  • Be inquisitive. You don’t know what you don’t know, so get the input of others and open yourself up to the feedback you’ll need to solve this problem.

3.      What other ways can you overcome the problem?

 Sometimes, getting to the root cause can take time. Of course, you can’t ignore it, but it is important to produce a plan to temporarily fix the problem. In business, a problem will be costing the business money, whether it be sales or profit. So, a temporary fix allows the business to move forward, providing it neutralises the downside of the original problem.

4.      How will you resolve the problem?

At this stage, you still don’t know what the actual problem is. All you have is a definition of the problem which is a diagnosis of the issue. You will have the team’s input, as well as your opinions as to what the next steps should be.

If you don’t, then at this stage you should think about reassessing the problem. One way forward could be to become more granular and adopt a first-principles approach.

  1. Break the problem down into its core parts
    • What forms the foundational blocks of the system in operation?
  2. Ask powerful questions to get to the truth of the problem
    • How do the parts fit together?
    • What was the original purpose of the system working in this way?
    • Name and separate your assumptions from the facts
  3. Remind yourself of the goal and create a new solution

Solve hard problems with inversion

Another way is to invert the problem using the following technique:

1. Understand the problem

Every solution starts with developing a clear understanding of what the problem is. In this instance, some clarity of the issue is vital.

2. Ask the opposite question

Convention wisdom means we see the world logically. But what if you turned the logical outcome on its head. Asking the opposite questions brings an unfamiliar perspective.

3. Answer the opposite question

It seems a simple logic, but you can’t just ask the opposite question and not answer it. You must think through the dynamics that come from asking the question. You’re looking for alternative viewpoints and thoughts you’ve not had before.

4. Join your answers up with your original problem

This is where solutions are born. You’re taking your conventional wisdom and aligning it with the opposite perspective. So often the blockers seen in the original problem become part of the solution.

5.      Define a plan to either fix the problem permanently or temporarily

You now know the problem. You understand the fix, and you are a position to assess the risks involved.

Assessing the risks means considering the worst-case scenarios and ensuring you avoid them. Your plan should take into the following points:

  • Is there any downtime to implementing the solution? If so, how long, and how much will it cost? Do you have backup systems in place to minimise the impact?
  • If the risk is too great, consider a temporary fix which keeps current operations in place and gives you time to further prepare for a permanent fix.
  • Document the plan and share it with all the relevant stakeholders. Communication is key.

Here we see the two skills of problem solving and decision making coming together. The two skills are vital to managing business risks as well as solving the problem.

6.      Monitor and measure the plan

Having evolved through the five steps to this stage, you mustn’t take your eye off the ball as it were.

  • Define timelines and assess progress
  • Report to the stakeholders, ensuring everyone is aware of progress or any delays.
  • If the plan doesn’t deliver, ask why? Learn from failure.

7.      Have you fixed the problem?

Don’t forget the problem you started with. Have you fixed it? You might find it wasn’t a problem at all. You will have learnt a lot about the part of the business where the problem occurred, and improvements will have taken place.

Use the opportunity to assess what worked, what didn’t, and what would have helped. These are three good questions to give you some perspective on the process you’ve undertaken.



Problem solving and decision making in unison

Throughout the process of problem solving, you’re making decisions. Right from the beginning when the problem first becomes clear, you have a choice to either react – firefight or to investigate. This progresses as move onto risk assessing the problem and then defining the solutions to overcome the issue.

Throughout the process, the critical element is to make decisions with the correct information to hand. Finding out the facts, as well as defeating your assumptions are all part of the process of making the right decision.


Problem solving and decision making – a process 

Problem solving isn’t easy. It becomes even more challenging when you have decisions to make. The seven steps I’ve outlined will give you the ability to investigate and diagnose the problem correctly.

  1. What is the problem?
  2. What are the potential causes?
  3. What other ways can you overcome the problem?
  4. How will you resolve the problem?
  5. Define a plan to either fix the problem permanently or temporarily.
  6. Monitor and measure the plan.
  7. Have you fixed the problem?

Of course, this logical step by step process might not enable you to diagnose the issue at hand. Some problems can be extremely hard, and an alternative approach might help. In this instance, first principles thinking or using the power of inversion are excellent ways to dig into hard problems. Problem solving and decision making are two skills every good leader needs. Using them together is an effective way to work.


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Inspiration through empowerment brings the best out of people, and makes them smile

Inspiration Should Be More Than Words. It Should Be Empowering Too

Inspiration is the process of uplifting others. The common belief behind the act of inspiring someone is the words you use. As I was to see, it only works if you empower others through your words too.


The first day is always the worst. If you could ask Dr Miranda Bailey she would agree whole-heartedly. Her glum expression reflecting the hollowness she now feels. Gone is the high of starting her first day as chief of surgery at Grey Sloane Memorial Hospital.

Stood on the open passageway where the two sides of the atrium become one, Bailey has a choice of views. To the south, the red and white stripes hang against the giant flagpole, fluttering gently in the breeze as the Seattle skyline sits poised in the background. In the other direction is the centre of the atrium, the reception area where patients, visitors, doctors, and nurses go about their day.

Instead of absorbing the atmosphere, Bailey sulks, crest-fallen at what has become a horrible day. Despite her fierce reputation, ‘The Nazi’ is all a front. Introverted, but overtly confident, her vision hasn’t materialized. Instead, she has had to isolate one doctor, deal with squabbling surgeons and lovers, and feel scorn from an overworked Meredith.

In Bailey’s mind, Meredith is her Aide-de-Camp. The one who turns strategy into action, or in the case of a hospital, the unwell to the healed. But with no title, Meredith tackles the workload alone, and struggles to keep pace with the events of the day. Exasperated, her tone with the new chief is abrupt. Confused, Bailey’s questioning opens a pandora’s box of frustration from Meredith. 

Battered, humbled, and daunted by the sheer size of the challenge she faces, the views across the atrium offer Bailey a moment’s peace. Not only has she failed in setting out her vision, but she has also lost her colleagues.


Leadership lesson

The wallowing of self-pity escapes Bailey, as the moment of failure becomes framed in words. Her mentor, and earlier chief, Dr Webber is the sponge who soaks up Bailey’s sorrow. “I’ve failed. They hate me.” 

“If you want someone to run a four-minute mile, you don’t chase them. You don’t give them something to run from. You give them something to run to.”

He pauses, his fingers brushing the grey hairs which decorate his chin. His sageness now ready to try and guide his former student back to the right path. “If you want someone to run a four-minute mile, you don’t chase them. You don’t give them something to run from. You give them something to run to.”

His perceptiveness is a nudge to Bailey about the true skill of leadership.

It isn’t micro-managing; chasing and harassing others to get things done. It isn’t being fierce, or sharp in her tone. Leading is inspirational; inspiring her team to achieve goals and stretch them.

As Webber’s quote sinks in, Bailey goes in search of Meredith. An explanation for the overworked surgeon comes forth. “I wanted you to be me. Just as I was the engine to Webber, so I want you to be my engine.” What follows next is the switch Webber spoke about. “I want you to be my chief of general surgery”.

Now Bailey’s words to Meredith begin to turn the tide, the promotion a recognition Meredith can and will work with. Instead of feeling put upon, Meredith takes forth her title to lead and guide her team of general surgeons. Empowered rather than harassed, the change is emphatic.


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Inspiration by empowerment

As the pandemic has done for many of us, box sets are now a pathway to relieve the monotony of isolation. Grey’s Anatomy, and it’s sixteen series have certainly broken up the festival of peace we’ve all experienced this year. Many of the episodes force a lesson upon us. Such is the way with exceptional stories, and this episode certainly prompted me to see how effective empowerment is. 

When I first think of inspiration, I think of General Maximus as he rides his horse back and forth along the frontline of soldiers in the opening scene to Gladiator. His steel sword reflecting the orange light of the fires that burn behind the lines. As he rides, so he issues a rallying cry to his troops. Inspired; so much so, the soldiers can see beyond the horror of war, and start marching towards the enemy.

Inspiration is so much more than leading from the front. It is more than battle cries, more than leading by example, although both are relevant. Inspiration is empowering others, allowing them to take responsibility. It lights up the pathway forward, which is what this excellent example highlights.

Yes, Bailey had delegated her work to Meredith, but she hadn’t empowered her to do it. Without the empowerment, Bailey faces a doctor bitter at the excessive workload, and worse, resentful of her new boss.

The inspiration comes from the empowerment. Now, Meredith is alive to the responsibility. No longer bristling, the promotion lifts the new chief of general surgery to do what Bailey needs. Inspiration should be empowering.


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A young man ponders; clearing his mind as he works at his desk

Clearing my Mind in the Information Age

Every Sunday morning, I get a notification from Apple about my screen time for the last seven days. Last week, I spent fourteen hours looking at social media; this fries my brain.

Context is everything of course; I’m in bed for eight hours (asleep for seven) and yet, twelve per cent of my time awake is gone, scrolling through an endless stream of tweets and posts. I spend another hour a day reading articles, webpages, and the news. This excludes the thirty minutes a day I spend with my Kindle, reading to try and learn even more.

Putting all that together is quite frankly frightening. I am, like so many others in the world, the epitome of the first part of the quote from E.O.Wilson. 

“We are drowning in information while starving for wisdom. The world henceforth will be run by synthesizers, people able to put together the right information at the right time, think critically about it, and make important choices wisely.”

E.O.Wilson

I am drowning in information, and at the same time, starved of wisdom.

I’m my quest to improve my decision-making I’ve come to see that my mind is cluttered. Cluttered from the endless streams of noise, all because I become consumed by the endless scrolling on social media. I don’t save the information I’m exposed to; I read it, but I don’t record it. I just hope I might remember it.


I need a Second Brain 

Note-taking is something most people do. There is an unlimited choice of apps and tools to help capture your notes. I’m also a prolific bookmarker, saving endless articles on Pocket. I read, rarely pausing to make notes.

When I do make notes, I’ve become stuck, jumping from tool to tool. I used Evernote in its early days and then moved onto OneNote. From OneNote, I moved to Notion. I wanted more flexibility than I was getting from OneNote, but with Notion, I still felt restricted. I love the way the databases interlink and come together, but it was still too hierarchical and rigid for me.

Through Twitter, I’ve found Roam Research, and it has changed everything for me.


Changing how I Process Information

Nat Eliason introduced me to the power of roam and the concepts behind his use of it, written by Tiago Forte. A personal knowledge system is a phrase I’ve only just discovered.

I’ve understood the principles but never had heard it framed in such a way, let alone consider a tool that might do the job for me. Every day is a learning day, and I’m certainly learning – and doing it quickly. The hierarchal frameworks of PARA (Projects, Areas, Resources, Archives) are calling me. Awareness of projects and the cascading effects of goals and tasks are well known to me. But using them to manage information is new to me – and exciting.

Now, I’m wondering how I should manage the information I interact with. As time continues to decline on the time I have left on this planet, I’m also contemplating the criteria I use for reading – both books and articles.

Brandon Zhang shared with me his thoughts in Reading with Intention, which offers ideas around the process of choosing what to read.  Not only am I looking to apply this to my book reading efforts, but also to the articles I consume.

There is another consideration for me. What principles should form the foundations of my note taking?

  • Should I copy the article?
  • Make highlights?
  • Add my own context to draw out the relevance?

There are lots of thoughts to me consider here. Thankfully, I’m guided by those who already know better. The insights from Brandon Zhang, Tiago Forte and Nat Eliason have proved helpful. Progressive Summarization is one example of a new way for me to capture information and keep it within my second brain.


Decision Tree’s

Like most people, temporary feelings influence my decisions and I feel the need to apply a more disciplined approach. One that removes impulse and emotion from the process.

Decision Tree’s offer that capability.

It means I can map out a ‘if this, then that’ method which will help safeguard against some of the inferior decisions I’ve made in the past.

For some, this will appear cold and clinical. But that is how it must be. Simple decisions like what to keep for my second brain, and how to keep it, start to open the way for me to begin clearing my mind. I find it quite frightening how I have allowed the consumption of information to dominate my time – and my mind.

As Nassim Taleb says: 

Nassim Taleb Quote

Clearing my Mind

Decisions are battles of thought we must overcome. Some of us hesitate; dithering on the outcome of what might or might not happen. What would help is clearing my mind. A brain free of information and keeping only wisdom, which would certainly help.

This is the point that Nassim Taleb is making. Our minds are so cluttered, so clouded with information that the opinions we form become blighted. Stepping free of the blinkers shifts the mind to a different space. A space where it can think deeply. Where it can draw on the insights and knowledge held in our second brains.

It is this space I want to get too. To be able to make decisions free of emotion. To control the urges of my system one thinking and use the more logical – and thoughtful – system two. The two decision systems as described by Daniel Kahneman in his book, Thinking Fast, and Slow.

With this process in place, one day I might get to that utopia of a clear mind.


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